20 Nov 1921-1927: Away from Greece
1921: Despite pre-electoral promises, Venizelos’s opponents continued the expedition in Asia Minor. Large-scale attack of the Greek army in Turkey’s hinterland (June 28), culminating in the battle by River Sakarya.
1922: Counter-attack of Turkish forces along the entire front under the leadership of Kemal Atatürk (August 13); Smyrna seized (August 27) and set on fire. 1,200,000 Greeks abandoned their ancestral homes in Asia Minor and fled to Greece as refugees. Outbreak of a military coup under Nicholas Plastiras (September 12). King Constantine’s abdication in favour of his son George II. “Trial of the Six” officials accused of treason on account of the defeat held in a heavy atmosphere culminating in their execution despite strong international pressure.
1923: Negotiations in Lausanne, Switzerland. Eleftherios Venizelos headed the Greek delegation. Convention for the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey (January 30) and Treaty of Lausanne (July 24), defining the new borders of Greece with Turkey. Elections for the Fourth National Constituent Assembly of Greece (December 16). King George II expelled from the throne; Admiral Paul Koundouriotis appointed Regent.
1924: Government under Venizelos (January 11). His resignation on account of his disagreement with certain liberals over the character of the regime (February 2). Greece declared a Republic by the National Assembly (March 24). Venizelos left for Paris, where he began his translation of Thucydides.
1925: Dictatorship under Pangalos.
1926: Pangalos overturned (August 12). Elections (November 7). All-party government formed under Alexander Zaimis.
1927: Return of Venizelos from Paris (May) and settlement in his house at Halepa, Hania.